Painting Berlin

Eduard Gärtner

A prolific painter of Berlin, Eduard Gärtner captured a city in a way not possible today, his paintings captured a city pre-industrialisation and were a guide to it’s buildings and celebrities.

Painting Berlin | Schloßfreiheit

The sky is fading in its colour, the light is setting in the west, the blue skies of the day give way to the richer colour palette of violets and soft yellows as the long rays of the evening sun reflect within the clouds the fill the horizon. Night is on its way. Darker clouds drawn in from the north begin to fill the scene. In the last spot of light before night closes in the final scenes of the day unfold beneath the gaze of the buildings of the Schlossfreiheit.

An elegant row of baroque buildings, that with the light at the end of the day shine as if built beneath the tuscan sun. They line the banks of the river rising four stories high. Sun shades drawn out and down protecting the occupants and plants upon the balconies. On resident peers over the railings at the two workmen who, from a small boxed wooden boat are unloading supplies through the service entrance upon the river. Near to the men unloading a washing line holds the garments of a home out to dry above the waters.

The buildings as splendid as they are, do much to hide a greater splendour. For over the steeply pitched roofs rises a great neo-classical balustrade the flows into the great octagonal tower and domed roof of the Schloss, in which is contained the chapel of the King. Strange that such a view should be obscured to the onlookers who either in going about their daily business or who are enjoying the last rays of the summer sun are upon the banks of the Spree opposite.

The bands of black holding white within its centre the Prussian eagle stretches its wings flutters the flag of Prussia. High on a mast it flies of a ship pulled to dock against the stone walls of Schinkel who sought to contain the great river Spree. The old maritimer takes rest at the end of the day from atop the stone steps, a peaked cap shields his brow as he gazes upon his boat shored on the river. It is from this river that a water carrier fills his wooden barrel that lays on top a cart with jugs of water pulled from the Spree. Two jugs of a few litres at a time to fill a barrel of hundreds of gallons.

A maid, decked in working clothes and mobcap, holds the shoulder of a young girl as she peers over the railing down upon the water, her brothers play in the street as the parents dressed in fine tailored clothes, the father in top hat, the mother in bonnet carrying a parasol chat with a woman of equal upper class standing, her daughter dressed in the finest style of the day at her side.

For the woman not so privileged in wealth, she holds her children near, her clothes darkened by the work of the day, but she smiles as she embraces two of her children, her oldest however stands at the railing also looking upon the river. Two halves of the same society oh so very different.

Nearby a dog barks at the horses of a wagon. A dog with a complexity issues. The great black horse looks over, the brown horse looks at the nouisance that the little scruffy animal represents before. Neither are aware of the white dog that has managed to climb upon the cart itself and is feasting on the wears held within the sacks. Neither is the seller to which the cart belongs. As he holds conversation with a fisherman, who carries his rod in a pouch, takes rest upon one of the boxes of the sellers wares as they hold conversation and the fisherman’s child swings his fishing rod as if were a sword of the soldier who now wanders the embankment with his compatriot, both dressed in their military regalia.

In the street a child and its mother move for the door held open by a gentleman dressed in white that’ll lead them into the pferdomnibus that awaits to take them on their way. Whilst an industrialist stands in black tailcoat and top hat, his back on the historic past as he looks onto the gardens that are overshadowed by the red brick facade of the not quite twenty year old Bauacademie that heralded a new time for construction in the city.

However, there is an oddity. Standing near Schinkel’s Schloßbrucke which tells the story of a hero and his struggles, the ancient gods standing at his side stands a man. A man who, unlike all the other figures has caught us in our gaze, as we have perused the scene before us. He stands, dressed in a fine brown long coat, a white shirt with neckerchief tucked within, well shined black shoes, a high top hat in grey upon his head and a cane within the grasp of his hand. He’s a soft faced man, with a pointed jaw. He’d taken the time for an evening walk with his dog and paused himself to enjoy the afternoon light which is now how he and his dog have caught our stare. His name is Eduard Gärtner and he stands to the right of his own name in 1855 in the capital of Prussia, Berlin, in a painting by his own hand.

The window within the frame

They offer a window into a past of a city that has always found itself in a constant state of flux. Never remaining the same for long always changing, be it through industry, revolution or war, has become very much part of the fabric of Berlin. Whilst the invention of photography has allowed for scenes of a city in later periods to be captured. The works of Eduard Gärtner provide a glimpse into a past that could not have been captured with technology but instead the eye and the hand of great painters become our windows into a past and history of the ever changing city.

Johann Phillip Eduard Gärtner was born in Berlin on the 2nd of June 1801 to an English chair maker. However he was born into a time where Europe was suffering from a blight of egos. In France the First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte was exerting his prowess over the battle field and heightening the influence of his policies over much of Europe, and it would not be long before the troops of Napoleon marched in Berlin.

In 1806 Berlin fell and a change in the situation of the economy of the city led Gärtner’s father to lose his occupation, with a wife, Caroline, and son to support life was not going to be easy. It was such, that in order to solve the families situation, Gärtner’s mother left Berlin with the young boy for Kassel. Kassel itself would not remain spared from the march of Napoleon on Europe and whilst the Gärtner and his mother resided their, in 1807, Kessel became the capital of the Kingdom of Westphalia, under Napoleon’s brother Jerome. It was during this time and under the Kingdom of Westphalia that Eduard Gärtner would begin on his artists journey.

His mother, employed within the royal court as a gold embroiderer, was able to arrange for the tutelage of court artist Franz Hubert Müller who would begin the training of the young boy when he reached the age of ten.

For two years he studied under Müller until 1813 and the Befreiungskriege when finally the dominance of Napoleon met its end with the ill planned march into Russia in 1812 and the turning of the tide of war against Napoleon with the decisions of Ludwig Graf von Yorck and the subsequent coalition of Prussia and Russia through 1813 that led to Napoleon’s defeat in 1814.

It was in 1814 that the 13 year old Gärtner would return to a Berlin and Prussia liberated from and victorious over Napoleon and France. With the defeat of Napoleon Berlin was able to being a return to an economy that had been destroyed under Napoleon’s regime. With the King’s return to rule the bourgeois that had become frugal, or had fled returned to the liberated city of Berlin and began to spend money once again. New chairs were ordered, curtains hung, and porcelain dining sets demanded to serve guests at the increasing number of dinner parties being hosted in the palais and mansions of the bourgeoise and noble elite.

For the Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur, founded in 1763 by Friedrich der Große, the increased amount of orders demanded for more painters and apprentices to be trained. In 1814 Gärtner began an apprenticeship with KPM.

If he was expecting to continue in the vein of his former master in the now defunct Kingdom of Westphalia he was to be sorely mistaken. Through six years of training his hand was taught to draw the careful borders, the swirling whips of golden decorative lines rather than scenes or sketches of city scapes or architectural details for which his former teacher Müller was specialised in.

In leaving KPM in 1820 Eduard Gärtner sat down to complete his first self portrait. In pencil and perhaps using a convex mirror he sits astride a tall stool. Whilst the face begins to show the promise of a budding artists, understanding light and shadow, angles and geometries the disproportion of scale between hands, torso, legs and feet create a self-portrait that is quite hard to gaze upon. However there was promise and an encounter later would truly influence his work.

Carl Wilhelm Gropius ran a theatre stage production workshop. Through this workshop he created the set designs for the Schausspielhaus that stands today on Gendarmenmarkt as the Konzerthaus. He, himself, had trained under the architect of the Schausspielhaus, the eminent and brilliant architect of Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel before founding his business in 1821. In founding his business he needed apprentices and artists and the young Eduard Gärtner caught his eye. Gärtner was brought to work with Gropius that very year and in doing so he also came to work with Schinkel who amongst architecture designed staging.

Working with Schinkel and Gropius on staging of palaces, rolling hills of Italian countryside he would gain one of the traits that would define himself as a painter the skills of Venduta. The realistic capturing of landscapes and architecture. For four years he would help finish the designs of Gropius and Schinkel bringing the worlds of opera and theatre to life and ever increasing his talents.

The King's Commission

Interior view of Berlin's old Dom
The Interior of the Old Berliner Dom

When 1824 came around Eduard Gärtner would receive his first commission from Friedrich Wilhelm III, King of Prussia. The piece, today, is exceptionally important for it shows the Berlin Dom Cathedral long since demolished.

Using the talents he had gained under Schinkel and Gropius, Gärtner set about capturing the grandness of the interior of a church that had been once laid down in a simplistic baroque by architect of Friedrich der Große, Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, but in recent years, (1816/17 for the Interior and 1820/21) been redesigned by Karl Friedrich Schinkel as he continued to put his neo-classical stamp on Berlin.

The long hall stretches out before the viewer, Corinthian columns support an arched roof indented with designs reminiscent of the Pantheon of Rome beneath which rows of wooden pews stretch forth towards the alter. Although the windows of the side cannot be seen, Gärtner shows the light shinning through. The wooden framing of the panes of glass shown in the two bursts of light on the canvas, once when the light hits a column on the right and once again as it falls before the two people caught in prayer. Only two other people are depicted, Gärtner chose to focus on the space as a whole rather than the people that would often fill it.

The painting was a great success when it was put on display for the first time during an exhibition of the Berlin Academy later that same year. People start to flock towards him throwing commissions his way and finally the son of a chair maker started to earn a living.

Such was the money earned from the commissions that he was able to afford a three year stay in Paris. Painting happily away he began to build on skills that would make the scenes he painted, the Venduta paintings, grow in popularity as they arrived back in Prussia. His scenes displayed life and energy, they were composed not to show a moment but to show a city and its functions within one window extending from the frame.

Whilst Gärtner could have sought to frame Berlin, to paint what one sees, he decided however, to create a window into the world, a point of access to a city and also to those that lived in it. Within his paintings he not only painted the people, the different classes that called the city home but those that he admired or those who were his friends. Upon his return to Berlin in 1828 he began to capture the city in this way, and from this period comes the Venduta, Die Klosterstraße.

Klosterstraße

Klosterstraße 1830

It is a scene that, as the much later painting of the Schloßfreiheit would also show, plays with light and life. From the relatively cold interior painting of the Berliner Dom from which Gärtner had begun his professional career as a painter of architecture, with its single piece of beautifully placed light but a painting predominantly in a singular blanket light, Gärtner has flourished. Die Klosterstraße shows a street, Klosterstraße, from the entrance way to the Gruner Straße, where Gärtner’s eye begins, south toward the Parochialkirche. The morning sun has risen over the rooftops and casts a golden light upon the right hand side of the painting, bathing Gärtner’s friend Schinkel’s English inspired design of the Gewerbeinstitut in rich morning golden hues, whilst the left hand side remains in the darker blues of the remains of night. To emphasise the distance and create perspective with which he began to work with in his self portrait of 1820, the Parochialkirche is amongst a haze, and its white walls, still very much under the dark, are in contrast not only to the light on the Gewerbeinstitute but also to the shadows that hang over the left hand side of the street. It is, amongst the dark, that the new building of the Gymnasium of the Grauen Kloster rises. Scaffolding climbs the side of the building whilst workers lay the final bricks that will cap out the square tower of the building in a neo-gothic baltic brick design.

Again, as before, the streets are full of life. A Italian grey hound, a favourite of Friedrich der Große plays with a black cat, whose tail is curled as it snarls at the playful hound. A horse drawn carriage pulls straw through the street for the many stables that are hidden in courtyards behind the elegant facades. There is family life. A young boy carries with him a ladder, a mother holds the hand of a child clad in white and there is business to be discussed. He has also included his eminent colleagues of the day. Before the Gewerbeinstitut, the founder Beuth walks with its architect Schinkel. And in front of the former wool warehouses upon the left, in the building before the new building of the Grauen Kloster, walks Christian Daniel Rauch the great sculptor and his colleague Karl Wilhelm Wach, both of whom hold studios within the former wool warehouse.

Finally at the centre of the painting a gentleman approaches a rider upon horseback. This is Gärtner on foot, meeting the painter of great equestrian scenes of Berlin Franz Krüger.

Not only is Die Klosterstraße a venduta of Berlin as a city, but a venduta of life within it. It offers avenues to its celebrities with teases to explore further whilst also functioning as a map. Beuth and Schinkel tell us that they are involved in the buildings to which they stroll past, as does Rauch and Wach standing before their studio. Die Klosterstraße allows us a view and an explanation into a city that a photograph simply could not capture. Sadly today, much of the street was lost in British and American heavy aerial bombardment of Berlin of the 3rd of February 1945, and further lost in the grand socialist rebuilding scheme of the Deutsche Demokratic Republik.

The same could be said for many of the buildings within the 1833 painting of Berlin’s Spittlemarkt and its Gertraudenkirche. Again Gärtner captures a city in the thralls of life. He captures the varying size of structures that represent the changing building blocks through time of the city. From the small single or double storied buildings of a Berlin beginning its history as the capital of Prussia to the three and four storied building of simple neo-classical elegance that would become the basis for the architecture of the city through to the first world war. But our main focus is upon the Getraudenkirche. A church that stretched, in some form, its history to the 15th century but carries the signs of dilapidation and age. Its render fallen from the walls exposing the brick construction, its clock face dull and illegible and doors closed. Before it a woman works one of Berlin’s hand pumps that still can be found on the streets of the city, and she fills a bucket, the overspill of water running into the open drainage gutter that carries waste away. The square is busy with the hub of a market day, with traders offering their wares from stalls or also from the curb on which they sit. Its a scene, that unlike with (some of) Klosterstraße can not be replicated today. The church was demolished during the urban reorganisation of Leipziger straße in the 1880s, the buildings destroyed during the air raids and the few that remained flattened to make way for a wider road and high rise apartment buildings. Gärtner’s Spittelmarkt becomes our window into a platz lost.

Gärtner was entering his most productive period in his painting career despite having a new family. He had married a year prior to the display of Die Klosterstraße to twenty one year old Henriette Karel, with whom he would have twelve children, 8 of which surviving into adult hood. However, the entry into parent hood did not steal him from his art, rather in fact he found solace and reclusiveness within painting only acting the father on Sunday’s, which he took as a day of rest, and on family holidays. Yet family did feature in his most brilliant and important work.

A visual tour of Berlin

Friedrichswerder Kirche, built by Schinkel is the one of Berlin’s most important architectural sites. The most southernly example of baltic gothic brick building technics its thin and long footprint on the city and twin towers are a remarkable, if small, site to see. It was from the roof of this red brick building, that in a hut that Gärtner had created for himself to shield himself and his work from the elements that he began to paint upon an initial sketch. The idea, to capture a panorama of Berlin, to preserve a city scape from a singular 360 perspective and also to capture Berlin, a city that industrialisation had not yet arrived to but the great smoke off was looming on the horizon for in just a few years, Borsig would found his iron works and steam locomotive manufacturing plant and begin the industrialisation of pleasant and quaint baroque Berlin.

The panorama, consisting of 6 panels, was premiered in 1834 and purchased by the King, Friedrich Wilhelm III, in 1836 for the Schloß Charlottenburg. A year later Borsig founded his factory and the columns of neo-classicism were replaced with the columns of industry spewing out the black dust of burnt coal. Where dark not only fell with the setting off the sun but also with the clouds of pollution that would epitomise the mass industrialisation of Western Europe at the same time.

Falling into the panorama of Gärtner we find a city of beauty and greenery. Beginning with the panel that looks north east, we see Museum Island, the central focus of which is on the Berliner Dom which Gärtner painted and sold as his first royal commission to Friedrich Wilhelm III, the King who, after the defeat of Napoleon, began a period of culture and art in Berlin, that was realised in Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s colonnaded Altes Museen, seated, in its splendour, to the left of the Dom. In the background, behind the museum, the tower of the Sophien Kirche rises from the Jewish district of Berlin, and between the Berliner Dom and the Stadt Schloß the tower of the Marienkirche where Berlin began. The Stadtschloß itself is out of focus, pushed behind and lost behind the Schloßfreiheit, and perhaps a thinly veiled criticism of an out dated monarchy but in the foreground, the Prussian flag flies, as it does in the later 1855 Schloßfreitheit painting upon a mast, a reference it appears that has purposefully Gärtner made. In the next panel, looking east, we see Gärtner looking on at his wife and his child who plays happily on the lead lined roof of the church. Gärtner has included, within the perspective the balustrade and towers of the church so our view is as if we stand ourselves upon the roof and are a witness to the view that Gärtner belongs to. Here, within this view, Schinkel’s bauakedemie, sitting in the light, is having the finishing touches put to its facade, whilst again the Schloß fades from focus and the church of St. Nikolai, its steeples asymmetrical, one tall and pointed and one gabled and distinct, in contrast to todays symmetrical pointed steeples. Our view then casts over the dense living districts of the Fischer Insel.

Through the twin brick towers of the Church we gaze of into the distance at the hill at Hasenheide, where the young men of Prussia were trained in gymnastics, in the Turner Movement, that restored the spirits of the young men of a Prussia under the control of Napoleon and would form the Lützow Corps known for the energy and superior athletic qualities.

To the South West we look over the two towers of the churches at Gendarmenmarkt, and Schinkel’s Shausspielhaus, today’s Konzerthaus, at the centre of the two towers. An evening sun descends and Gärtner has captured a golden hour over the city as two gentlemen converse as they gaze out on the splendid view in which the Kreuzberg, and the memorial to the Liberation wars, also by Schinkel stands amongst the green fields onto which Berlin has yet to sweep over.

Directly west, we see the forum Friedericianum, the Catholic church of St. Hedwig designed by Friedrich der Große’s architect Knobelsdorff with its dome of copper modelled on the Pantheon, and the Royal Library copied from plans stolen from Maria Theresa of Austria and built by Friedrich der Große out of spite to his arch nemesis and in the foreground the Opera house. Pointing out across the scape stands the great Alexander von Humboldt as he explains the view to a husband and wife who have made the trek up the towers that is impossible to do today.

Finally looking north we look on the the Berlin University that would, one day, come to posses the name of the distinguished brothers von Humboldt.

Together it forms amongst the last views of a city teetering on the precipice of a seismic shift. Again Gärtner has captured society and stated that a city is not merely of its buildings but also of its people. But the panorama would be amongst the last of his Berlin works for a time. In search of the wealth that was afforded to other artists, and friends such as Krüger, Gärtner would ride off to Russia in search of commissions not from Kings but Emperors.

To Russia

His time spent in Russia was back and forth from 1837 until 1839. His work, as it did in Berlin, captured a city and its populace and provides a glimpse at a city scape changed through war and ideology.

In Russia he arrived with no direct commission from the Tsar Nicolas I for a copy of the Berlin panorama that he had created, but nevertheless he was able to persuade the Tsar to purchase it who gave it as a gift to his wife, Alexandra Feodorovna, also known as Charlotte of Prussia and the eldest surviving daughter of his main patron King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia. Gärtner fell in love with the space offered by Moscow and St. Petersberg and painted profusely but sadly many of these works are lost.

For Alexandra Feodorovna and for Eduard Gärtner great sorrow came on the 7th of June 1840 when Friedrich Wilhelm III’s 42 year reign as monarch over Prussia came to an end with his death. For Alexandra Feodorovna she lost a father and Eduard Gärtner lost a great patron. Friedrich Wilhelm IV, the son of the late King, was a man of the arts but not in the same manner in which his father had been. His father had been a great lover of the vendute of Berlin, perhaps because since the defeat of Napoleon he had put great effort in reforming the arts and culture of the city, but the new King was a hapless romantic. Lost to the vineyard terraces of Italy and Greece he preferred to wander within his imagination and with the aid of art through the scenes of an old world, not the current one to which Gärtner painted.

The rise of romanticism

The new King had, with the permission of his father, undertaken, whilst Crown Prince, a grand tour of the states of Italy, and had been bitten by the fever that the ruins of a great past in the romantic settings of rolling hills in Tuscany or the great structures of the ancient capital of Rome. There was little he could do to shake it, and began drawing himself ideas for buildings in Prussia based on the Italian style. He would later realise one of the grandest ideas as the Orangerieschloß in Potsdam, built in the Italian renaissance ideal as was much of the structures built for royal or governmental purposes during his reign.

For Gärtner this was a disaster. He had not ventured to Italy. He had not paddled the waterways of Venice, wandered in the hills of Tuscany or passed through the medieval gates of Genoa. Despite his vendute work being comparable to those of the great Italian Vendute artist Canaletto (Bernado Bellotto). The lifeline that was provided to Gärtner was that those who admired the eye of Friedrich Wilhelm III did not die with him.

For Gärtner patrons were not as many as before, but many still recognised his talents, and within a city, after the industrial revolution in 1840, with a growing bourgeoise class there were still patrons willing to buy the realism of Gärtner’s art over the romantic views of the tiber.

Das Wohnzimmer des Schlossmeisters Hauschild

A view into a 19th century Berlin apartment room

Das Wohnzimmer des Schlossmeisters Hauschild is a painting that is testament to the changing economy of the city. Gärtner, commissioned by Carl Hauschild, captures the luxury in which the locksmith Hauschild lives as a testament to his success as a business man. Within the painting Gärtner once again plays with light as he depicts a the family of Hauschild sat within the living room of their apartment on Stralauer Straße. His family portrait is not just a portrait of a family soullessly starring at the artist or into the distance but rather a moments capture as if posed for a photograph.

The grandmother sits in a chair near a window. Widowed she’s dressed in black and has her back turned to the artist. Seated not before the window but to the side she is in shadow, but we see her face through a reflection within a mirror, which itself sits in light and brings her character from the isolation it suffers at the edge of the family room into the centre as the viewer witnesses her face softly and proudly look on her grand children. The mirror, also interestingly closes the space as it shows the otherwise unseen fourth wall that is behind Gärtner as he paints.

Hauschild stares with a heavy brow toward the window, a gold coin, testament to his financial success in his hand as one of his daughters relaxes her head upon his knee. His wife enters the room holding another child and two more daughters, one sat beside the mirror and the other leans on to a table with wine, meat and a crystal decanter laid upon it.

Rich, vibrant blue patterned wallpaper decks the walls, another sign of wealth and success, upon which hangs a silouette of the wife, a painting of a windowed room, and above the door a gentleman in military garments, perhaps Friedrich Wilhelm III. Parquet lines the floor and crystal fills the Biedermeier cabinets, and typically, for a Gärtner painting, a cat plays with a ball of yarn. A testament to success and new methods the painting represent the change from a system of journeymen and apprentices working with a master from a goods yard, to a master enjoying the profits of the work that is now manufactured beneath him.

Bringing back, and becoming part of, the past

A view onto the Schildhorn monument with the sun setting behind it's cross

As time progressed on Gärtner understood as those he painted adapted to change or grasped at it, so did he. With the romanticism of the King came the romanticism of his people. A sudden increase in the want for paintings of monuments such as the Schildhorn. The Schildhorn monument sketched initially by the hand of the king, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, was to immortalise the event of Jaxa former Slavic ruler of Brandenburg submitting to the Christian Albrecht the bear in 1157, and Jaxa hanging his shield and horn upon a tree to begin his conversion to Christianity. The sketch, passed to Schinkels student Friedrich August Stüler, was brought to life. For Friedrich Wilhelm it was intended to bring back old christian morals to a time he felt had lost them when compared to his romanticised visions of the past. Quickly the people of Prussia became eager to see the monument that they were hearing a out. Gärtner seized the opportunity and painted the Schildhorn in 1848. The cross on top of which blocks out the sun in a halo.

Gärtner adapted to new technologies as they arrived also. The 1850s brought photography to Berlin, which as an ever expanding city economically as well as with population, was thriving. He acquired photographs that allowed him to make tiny corrections to his paintings that would allow for the greatest possible accuracy within his vedute that, despite the King’s lack of interest, he still continued to paint. His 1852 painting of Unter den Linden that captures the statue by Rauch of Friedrich der Große looking onto the Schloß in the distance was perhaps one that used the advent of photography to enhance accuracy but Gärtner still added his touches of life to the paintings, the trademark leaping dog running toward the base of the statue.

However, despite his efforts his later work, much of which was watercolour rather than oil, did not live up to the success of the past. His eye sight began to fail him and in 1870 he, his wife and their two unmarried daughters relocated to the scenic retreat of Ruppiner Seeland. Friends and family kept him busy with commissions but the great works of his past were not to be seen again.

Eduard Gärtner died on the 22nd February 1877. His works under a soldier king, and a Germanic romanticist Kaiser slowly became forgotten. Thankfully, however, 29 years after his death a comparative exhibition of work between Bernado Bellotto and Gärtner rekindled interest for the great painter as the city scapes became as foreign to the people of Berlin then as they are now. Gärtner’s paintings aided in a romanticism for the past of the people’s own city and through the 20th century numerous exhibitions had allowed the viewers of his work to see views long gone such as 1846s’ Herkulesbrücke, or even the war destroyed Stüler designed Egyptian Courtyard of the Neues Museum to lament over or to analyse a city ever caught within the throws of change.

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