He Who Holds The Devil

The Rule of Law

[Neville Chamberlain]

The settlement of the Czechoslovakian problem that has now be achieved is in my view is only the prelude into a larger settlement that which all of Europe can find peace.

This morning I have had another talk with the German Chancellor Herr. Hitler. And here is the paper, which bears his name upon it as well as mine. [Cheers] Some of you, perhaps have already heard what it contains, but I’d just like to read it to you.

“We the Führer and Chancellor and the British Prime Minister, have had a further meeting today and are agreed in recognising that the question of Anglo-German relations is of the first importance for the two countries and for Europe.

So the British Prime minister spoke as he waved a piece of white paper in the blustery wind that hastened across the open expanses of a British Royal Airforce Base base making a point of showing it and its symbolic importance to the crowd. It was only twenty years since the last war had come to an end. A war that was once said to be the war that would end all wars. The British Public were not eager to let the memorial stones in their village squares, on their church walls, on town plazas or in city halls be expanded and bare anymore names of their sons, fathers, brothers or uncles lost to another global conflict and Nevill Chamberlain, the British Prime minister, opted to pursue a line of appeasement rather than conflict with the growing in confidence German Führer Herr Hitler.

We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German naval agreement as symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with one another again.” [Cheers.]

Later that same day, Neville Chamberlain the man who spoke those words would stand before number 10 downing street and proclaim, “Peace in our time.” The date was the 30th of September 1938.

It has been a speech that has fallen into historical infamy. For less than a year later the same man, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain would once again let his voice ring over the airwaves on the 3rd of September at 11:15am.

[British Declaration of War 3 Sept 1939]  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcSnKArKz8E

This is London, you will now hear a statement by the Primeminister.

I am speaking to you from the cabinet room at 10 Downing street. This morning the British ambassador in Berlin handed the German government a final note, stating unless we heard from them by 11:00 that they were prepared at once to withdraw their troops from Poland a state of war would exist between us.

I have to tell you now that no such undertaking has been received and that consequently this country is at war with Germany.

Within the British Prime Minister’s voice you can hear the sorrow and the heavy heart with which he spoke those words. The optimism of hoping to contain a tyrant with appeasement to save the lives of not only the young men of Britain but of all nations across Europe that had existed when he had spoken before on the tarmac over the agreement signed in Munich that would bare that city’s name had been expunged. Now, with knowledge of the horrors of the first world war playing before his imagination he had to tell the British Public that once more that they and their loved ones would suffer in another war.

Between Prime Minister Chamberlain’s first speech and the declaration of war Hitler had flaunted the Munich agreement that Chamberlain had proclaimed on the tarmac of a British Airbase, to which the words “Peace in our time,” have so often but wrongly been associated. The Munich agreement had forced Czechoslovakia to forfeit its claims to the Sudetenland to Hitler’s Germany. Czechoslovakia wished to fight for its land, but realising it stood alone, and predominantly surround by enemies that were ready to take from their land as they saw fit, relinquished the ideas of a struggle, as long as Hitler promised to not goose-step further into Czech or other people’s land, to which he happily agreed.

Yet the British Prime Minister should have known he was making a deal with a snake. After the Munich agreement was concluded, Poland annexed Zaolzie, Hungary took the border region of the Slovak area of the country. Then on the 15th March 1939 the German Wehrmacht would enact Operation Green, where the rest of the remaining Czech part of the country would be seized. Slovakia had declared itself an independent state the previous day.

As the German troops marched across the border, the Czech President Hacha was already in Hitler’s chancellery, where Hitler would threaten the bombing of Prague if the Czech troops refused to lay down their arms. Hacha agreed. The Czech lands became the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Germany received the gold treasury numbering 227 tons of Gold and increased its ability to make war greatly by the seizure of the Czech industrial facilities from which roughly 25% of all German weapons were produced.

Yet the international community did nothing. There was no war declared from the west, nor was there a will. Hitler said of Chamberlain “If ever that silly old man comes interfering here again with his umbrella, I’ll kick him downstairs and jump on his stomach in front of the photographers.”

Chamberlain had done a deal with the devil. He had made an agreement as a gentleman, whilst Europe was being increasingly occupied by dictators. And what he had allowed, was for Hitler to build the forces required to continue his quest for territory in Europe.

Hitler would invade Poland on the 1st of September 1939, prompting Chamberlain’s announcement on the 3rd, that Britain and France were at war with Germany. However, as the tanks of the Wehrmacht manufactured by the former Czech Skoda works now in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia rolled across the Polish plains the British and French did little. To the British the war became known as the phoney war. But for the Polish it was anything but Phoney.

As Britain prepared for war at home, the Polish were being brutalised and slaughtered, their population segregated and murdered. The events of which, Leni Riefenstahl the director of the Triumph of the Will and Olympia films of the third Reich witnessed first hand as a war reporter. She witnessed 30 civilians being executed in Konskie, she left Poland shortly after, returning only to film Hitler’s victory parade in Warsaw, after which she chose never to make any more movies for Hitler.

Whilst the British rearmed, Hitler also managed to take Denmark and Norway in April and May of 1940. Then war hit the allies. The Phoney war was no more as the machines that Hitler had been allowed to build up drove west.

The tanks, and armoured personal carriers of the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS, the planes of the Luftwaffe and Battleships and Cruisers of the Kriegsmarine launched Operation Yellow. A lightening war, a blitzkrieg ensued. It was the 9th of May. On the 13th Chamberlain resigns.

On the 10th of May Luxembourg was captured. The 15th of May the Netherlands capitulated, on the 28th Belgium surrendered. Then Operation Red on the 5th of June was enacted to seize France. The British Expeditionary Forces and armies of the French were put into retreat. The British left their equipment along the sides of the French roads as they ran to the coast to be extracted to Britain. The war for Europe, for the time being was lost as French signed the armistice of the 22nd of June 1940.

The new Prime minister now took to the airwaves.

[Churchill Speech]  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G4BVzYGeF0M

What General Vaigon called the Battle of France, is over the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of christian civilisation. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must be soon turned upon us. Hitler knows he will have to break us on this Island or loose this war.

The speech might have been prophetic it may have been profound and rousing to Britain, but it did nothing for the territories that now lay beneath the flag of the Hakenkreuz. For as Churchill spoke to the British people, in Germany, the Reichs and Prussian Ministry of the Interior was working on how its laws and doctrines would be applied to the new nations of the Greater German Reich.

[Intro Music] This is [podcast name]… Episode 5 – The rule of law

We’ve already spoken before of Dr. Hans Globke’s roll in transferring the laws of his creation to Austria after the Anschluss of the 12th March 1938 but the transfer of the laws created to the newly conquered territories was to be different.

To the National Socialist Regime, Austria was German, especially to Hitler who was born in Austria. So therefore the people of Germany and Austria were one of the same. But transferring the laws onto the new territories who spoke a different language, had different cultures and whom to Dr. Globke did not belong to the Aryan race.

There was that letter to the Reichs Minister of the Interior of 15th of March 1934 where Globke states that the Finns and the Hungarians were not of Aryan decent and he required advice on how to proceed with their applications for name changes. Both Finland and Hungary would at points become allied with the Germans during the war.

It was a question, as the German Reich, of who belonged to it, who became a citizen, and for many it wasn’t a question of living in the lands occupied by the Reich, but rather who the Reich wanted. It was pick and choose, and the ultimate quest was Germanisation.

In the same letter of the 15th of March 1934, Dr. Globke wrote to Stuckart,

“In my opinion, Germanization does not exist when a non-German part of the people or some of their relatives, on the basis of their conviction of the higher worth of German culture, for example, voluntarily aspire to German culture and want to adopt their culture. On the one hand, there is no injustice to foreign folklore, which the Chancellor has rightly rejected, but on the other hand, German nationality is to be regarded as so strong that there are parts of foreign folk of the Aryan race, who profess to them in a spirit of conviction , without damage.”

The Reichs Ministry of the Interior’s power stretched across the Reich and covered almost all the legislation that governed the social life of the population. Department I, Dr. Globke’s domain, was generally concerned with issues of nationality, on which it and he, would create drafts on law on the issue of nationality and Dr. Globke would act often as a commentator on the application of laws on nationality, bending the will of the law to his view.

His tasks during the war were extensive. In 1940 he worked in citizenship law as well as deputy head of division I.6, responsible for affairs within the western zones, by 1941 he was head of this division, now called reorganisation of the west. At the same time as he worked for the sub department of citizenship and race he also became a consultant for business areas within the captured territories working for the “Generalbevollmächtigten für die Reichsverwaltung” or GBV.

By 1943 he had been promoted to head of division IB, no responsible for citizenship and race. As a representative of the GBV he also became a consultant for “ceasefire and peace treaties.”

But his will was to shape and form the peoples of the conquered territories to the ideas of National Socialism and to Germanisation and therefore shape the National Socialist Empire. The claims of for naturalisation of people who had lived in areas for years, decades or generations had been all cancelled with the swift law dated 15th of May 1935 and signed by the Reichs Minister of the Interior, where Section 1 ended with “there are no claims to naturalisation.” It was up to the ministries to decide who was worthy in their eyes of being a citizen.

The law was extended as the armies marched. Germanisation and citizenship was extended to those in certain areas who renounced their other nationality, like Polish registered citizens of Danzig/Gdansk, or Belgium citizens of Malmedy, Eupen or Moresnet.

The 12th Ordinance Act that had been used to further deny Jews and Gypsies entirely of their citizenship was also used to revoke anyone of their citizenship. When the armies invaded Poland in 1939, and Poland became known as the General government the Polish people did not become members of the German Reich. Protection could be extended to members of the German Reich who did not “belong to the German people” but the nationality had to be protected or awarded in an individual case.

In the case of a Pole, they could have their protective status stripped, at which point they would loose any protection under the law and could be subject to any treatment the Nazis and their supporters saw fit, even if they were murdered there would be nothing a relative could seek in ways of punishment for the murderer. It facilitated the ethnic cleansing of the Poles in places such as Volhynia, Galicia and Lublin.

For Czechoslovakia the Germans had entered the Sudetenland on 1st of October 1938 the day after Chamberlain had returned to Britain with the Munich agreement in hand that had taken these lands from Czechoslovakian and gifted them to Hitler’s Germany. These lands were to be fully incorporated into Germany by the 10th of October and a new treaty was negotiated to settle the issue of citizenship, the Germans knowing that the Czech government could do little in denying the wishes of the German government.

The treaty of the 20th November 1938, gave Czechoslovak nationals who died on the final day of the operation to bring the Sudetenland into the German Reich Czechoslovak could gain German citizenship under certain conditions. It demanded that all non-Germans born after 1st July 1910 leave along with their descendants by the 10th of July 1939, but the Czecho-Slovak government would accept these people. Those born before 1st of July 1910 could be German citizens, as long, as they were not Jews.

A treaty was drafted, its purpose was to lay on paper the rules that would govern the citizenship of those within the newly acquired territory. German Citizenship was to be given to all born in the area before the 1st of January 1910, a time when the region was a component part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, but of course this was for all except the Jews. The Czechs within the area were given a right to exercise a choice, being born before 1910 they could choose German citizenship, or Czech, but if they chose to remain Czech they were to be expelled from the area by 1940 and would only be allowed to take a small amount of their property with them, the rest would default to the Reich. For those born after 1910 and were not considered to be German the draft bill were to put those people in a more lawless position especially as the area became more brutally Germanised.

It also stated that the Czechoslovak government could do the same, that those with German ethnicity who are Czechoslovak nationals could request that they leave for German territory within a period of 3 months. However, if they have gained Czechoslovak citizenship after the 30th January 1933, in other words after Hitler and the Nazis came to power, this did not apply, for therefore they could only be an opponent and traitor.

Underneath a total of 14 sections outlining the rules of citizenship are the names of those sent to negotiate the treaty on citizenship, they are Friedrich Gaus of the Foreign Office,  Antonin Koukal of the Czecho-Slowak Ministry of Justice in Prague and from the Reich Ministry of the Interior, Dr. Hans Globke.

For the Czechoslovakia representatives that this draft of this law was laid before they were told that it had already been approved by Hitler. The Czechoslovak representatives protested but Dr Globke refused them any further negotiations, they were told to sign, believing that Hitler had already signed it and therefore there was little movement if any possible at all and knowing the danger if they refused, they one by one placed their signatures upon the paper on the 20th of November 1938.

In an article published within the Zeitschrift für Osteuropäischer Recht of February 1939 Dr. Globke wrote about the treaty he designed for the people of the Sudetenland, “When designing the optional right for Czechoslovak citizenship, the previously applicable principle of international law was abandoned to grant all persons who automatically acquire a different citizenship upon territorial separation an optional right for their previous citizenship. To the extent that views of nationality are of greater importance than citizenship, it seemed impossible to give German citizens who have acquired German citizenship an option to change their nationality. All German citizens of Czechoslovak citizenship are entitled to the option of German citizenship … The only exceptions are those German citizens who only became Czechoslovak citizens after January 30, 1933 this means that the emigrants who have acquired Czechoslovak citizenship are excluded from the optional right.”

It was also in February 1939 that Dr. Globke and the Reichs Ministry of the Interior implemented the Ordinance on German Citizenship in the Sudeten German Regions, in this ordinance the previously passed Ordinance of German Citizenship from the 5th of February 1934, in which stated under §2 The state government makes every decision in the field of citizenship law in the name and on behalf of the Reich and §3 read German citizenship can only be conferred after the Reichs Minister of the Interior has given his consent, along with the Law amending the Reich and Citizenship law of the 15th of May 1935 under which §1 read; the naturalisation authorities decide whether to grant citizenship at their discretion. There is no entitlement to naturalisation, were now implemented within the Sudetenlands and backdated to the 10th of October.

Of course this did not matter for long. For on the 15th of March all of the Czech part of the Czechoslovak lands were brought under the control of the German Reich. Dr. Globke set about creating the laws that would bring all those with German ethnicity within the former Czech lands as German citizens unless they fell fowl of his previous laws of November 1938. While those who existed outside of the perceived German ethnicity would be considered German nationals. He also was in attendance of the meetings that drafted the legal structure of the Sudetenland as Reichsgau Sudetenland with a Reichsstatthalter as leader in Reichenberg.

However, it had to be legally defined as who was of German ethnicity and who was a German national, in the eyes of Dr. Globke there was a difference.

In a letter to Minister of the Interior Frick, dated 27th of March 1939. Dr. Globke outlined a draft for an unpublished circular. Dr. Globke was presented with an issue that if the stricktest ideas of what counted as German to say those defined by decent, were applied there would be too few persons for Germinisation. So the circular expanded to cultural determination. Language, education, culture, self-identification and behaviour identification with German culture would now be an attributing factor, to who belong to the Volksdeutsch community, these would become German citizens. In Czechoslovakia this was to produce an extra 3.48 million German Nationals. However it was to leave over seven million with no status and therefore no protection under the law. However Reichs Minister Frick postponed the circular. The reason being, the growing number of trials for treason. i.e. Czech resistance.

However, there was a change of course. At a meeting, on the 9th of December 1939 to which Dr. Globke was present it was decided, that all Czechs who resided within the country at the time of the German occupation, the 15th of March 1939, irrespective of if they had obtained a different nationality would be registered as members of the protectorate. Only those that gained a different nationality before the 15th of March would be exempt, which, Dr. Globke ensured those gathered would be a negligible percentage.

Why were they now wishing the Czechs to be protectorates of the Reich?

The reason was simple, there was an increasing amount of Czechs escaping and joining the allied Czech Legions.

With the growing Czech Legions within the armies and airforces of the Allies, the new rule would mean that any Czech captured fighting for the allies, that had resided in the lands now known as Bohemia and Moravia, would not be treated as prisoners of war, but rather, now that they were considered to be protectorates of the Reich therefore belonging to the Reich, they would be charged with treason, which usually meant the death sentence.

With this, if a Czech tried to leave Bohemia and Moravia they could be charged with trying to join the Czech legion irrespective if that was their intent or not, which to the Nazis was enough to warrant a death sentence.

However there was also a worry that, in the eyes of the Nazis and Dr. Globke that the superior German blood could be diluted by that of those of the protectorate. So Dr. Globke drafted an ordinance, printed on the 6th of June 1941.

The decree read:
Ordinance regulating citizenship issues vis-à-vis the Bohemia and Moravia Protocol. 6 June 1941.

On the basis of the decree of the Fiihrer and Chancellor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on March 16, 1939, the following was ordered in agreement with the Reich Protector in Bohemia and Moravia:

(1) German people cannot be protectorates.
(2) Section 3 of the Ordinance on the Acquisition of German Citizenship by Previous Czecho-Slovak Citizens of German Ethnicity of April 20, 1939 is popularly unaffected. (§3
German citizens residing in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia also have the rights of citizens of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.)

(1) A German citizen who is married to a member of the Protectorate or who was married on March 16, 1939, acquires German citizenship provided that the husband loses the Protectorate membership according to §1.
(2) A German nationality of German ethnicity, which marries a protectorate member, does not lose German citizenship unless the higher administrative authority, in the Bohemia and Moravia Portektorat of the Oberlandrat, makes a contrary decision before the marriage.

On the 17th of July 1941 a meeting took place within the offices of the Reichsprotektor for Bohemia and Moravia with Dr. Globke. The discussion was to be over the implementing decrees for this ordinance. In relation to Section two paragraph two the note states “To §2 paragraph 2 it will have to be said that German citizenship will be lost if the wife is inferior. If needed, a secret decree will be required.”

The meeting’s notes then turned to the next section of the ordinance of the 6th of June 1941 designed by Dr. Globke.

(1) A child who comes from a marriage between a German national and a member of the protectorate acquires German citizenship through birth. German citizenship is not acquired if the mother has lost German citizenship as a result of marriage to a member of the protectorate in accordance with section 2 (2).
(2) A child from a marriage between a German national and a member of the Protectorate, who was born between March 15, 1939 and the entry into force of this Ordinance, acquired German citizenship upon birth. An acquisition of German citizenship did not take place if the child was born in a marriage before March 16, 1939 and the children born before that date did not acquire German citizenship.

The meeting notes of the 17th of July 1941 state “Regarding §3 Paragraph 2, it will be noted that the automatic acquisition of German citizenship for children born after a mixed marriage after March 16, 1939 occurs even if not all children born before March 16, 1939 have become German citizens .”

Shortly after the meeting with the Reichsprotektor Dr. Globke drafted a circular in which he writes:

“Insofar as Germany was involved in regulating the citizenship of the former Czechoslovakian nationals, one of the objectives pursued was, in principle, not to allow any German people to become members of the protectorate. §1 para .1 of the ordinance has now determined that no German citizen can be a protectorate, which does not change the fact that, according to §3 of the ordinance of April 20, 1939, German nationals residing in the protectorate continue to have the rights of protectorates. ”

With this a multiple levelled system of ethnic hierarchy was created, Germans citizens at the top, ethnically Germans beneath, followed by Czechs as members of the protectorate and beneath them all the Jews. Under the laws and advice of Dr. Globke children and couples were threatened, knowing the difficulties they faced if they lost citizenship. German nationality could be lost if a wife was considered to be “inferior” meaning Czech.

If a German national male did wish to marry a member of the protectorate a certificate would have to be supplied which would prove the racial hereditary character as along with political and social papers. These collections of paper on the potential wife would have to be placed in a sealed envelope along with one more piece of proof. A photograph showing the woman in an unclothed condition. The piece of paper that ordered for the inclusion of nude photographs was the circular of the 3rd of April 1941, and it was signed, Dr. Hans Globke.

Potential marriages could be declined for a wealth of reasons, from speaking languages considered inferior, to the female of the protectorate having lived with an “Ethnic German” for year and having failed to learn German, to the fact the husband was a doctor and therefore a member of the protectorate was beneath him. In some cases racial characteristics were written upon the applications, notes saying Asian looking, baltic in appearance, the applicant is of Czech decent, or foreign national has alien characteristics.

But it wasn’t just the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia that Globke opperating within.

In Slovakia he toured with Minister Fricks, and Stuckart, he gave the Hitler salute in the middle of the street as crowds looked on in Bratislava. He stood outside the Carlton Hotel and watch Fricks receive welcome flowers from Volksdeutsche Kinder. Shortly after Minister Fricks and Dr. Globke’s visit the Slovak newspaper Gardista published a report that the Jews were leaving the country.

He had taken part in a meeting that discussed the resettlement of the Slovak Jews. As a result three concentration camps were constructed in Slovakia which eventually were emptied, their former occupants being “evacuated to the east.” How much Dr. Globke contributed to the meeting it cannot be said, however when asked later in life, he stubbornly refused to answer, concealing his role.

In Lithuania the Nazis once more broke the Munich Agreement when the armies rolled in just 5 days after they had in the Czech lands. They moved to take Memel, that had been German before 1924, now to the Nazis it was coming back. Lithuania was forced to cede the territory under threat that the tanks would not stop rolling. Memel was transferred by the Lithuanian Government on the 22nd of March 1939.

Here again, the ideas of Germanisation, who belonged to the Reich and in what capacity needed to be settled, so once again it was Dr. Globke who was sent to negotiate. Antanaz Jakobasa lawyer for the Lithuanaian Ministry of the Interior, who sat in the court room in 1963 was at the negotiation table.

When they met at the negotiating table at the end of June 1939 the course of discussion was of depriving the Lithuanians, Jews and foreign citizens of political and civil rights.

Those Germans who had opted for Lithuanian citizenship after 1924 were automatically reverted back to German citizenship. Even if they no longer lived in Memel. However those who left as the German armies moved into Memel would not be classified as German but Lithuanian. Except Jews. Jews who fled. Jews who fled were to be denied of German citizenship, not allowed to return but also under the conditions set forth by Dr Globke Lithuania was not allowed to recognise them as Lithuanian citizens, they were to be stateless.

Once more add. Globke would write In the Zeitschrift für Osteuropäische Recht Journal of Easter European Law, of September October 1939 Dr. Globke would write in regards to the citizenship of the Memel area “Persons of alien blood, especially Jews, are not German nationals, the decision of who is a German national, is exclusively for German authorities.”

If the horrors of what the Czechs, Slowaks and Lithuanians had to go through in Dr. Globke’s Germinisation are to be considered terrible which they were, what the people of Poland had to suffer was worse.

The ethnic cleansing of Poland resulted in 22% of the nations population being exterminated, or six million people. Poland was to be the living space or Lebensraum for the German people that Hitler had always dreamed of.

On the extension of the German Reich to Poland after 1st of September 1939 and its conquering on the 6th of October 1939, Dr. Globke would right.

“On the extension of the German Reich to areas with strong non-German Populations new problems have been posed to the citizenship law. If non-Germans, like Germans, came into possession of German citizenship, an external assimilation of non-Germans could not be prevented in the long run. Such an assimilation would be undersirable, because the German people would not be strengthened by the associated intrusion of foreign blood, but weakened in its character.”

It was decided in Poland that there was to be a list, a German peoples list, where within the German people of Poland would be categorised.

In Group A: People have actively engaged in the struggle for nationality. Meaning predominantly people who were members of the NSDAP
B: People who have preserved their Germanness
C: German born but have Polish behaviour, but have the prerequisites to become full members of the German national Community.
D; Germans of German decent who have been raised in Poland but has not been active in Germanism
E: German nationals with Polish nationality and proven anti-German activity.

A,B and C were to receive the ID card of the German People’s List, those of D and E would not.

From here a people’s list would be created. A 25 page typewritten document that Dr. Globke consulted on, that was not intended for publication only circulation amongst the relevant ministries stated that entry into the People’s list was based on a) Commitment to German nationality, b) descent and c) racial suitability.

For those who did not fall under these categories, Poles and Jews Dr. Globke has referent for the Plenipotentiary for the Reichs Government drafted a regulation in March 1940 that provided for an extension of martial law, he writes “because of the attitude of Poles and Jews who have been recently more defiant and challenging,” he introduced new criminal offences, they were, acts of violence against Germans because of their ethnicity, arson, and weapons possession, the only sentence that could be attached to these crimes, death.

In  December 1941, these laws would be expanded by Globke in a draft. Poles and Jews would be punished with death if they were violent to a German because of his German nationality. They would be punished with death if they presented anti-German sentiment. Punished with death if commit a violent act against someone of the German Wehrmacht, German Police, Reich Labor Service, German authority or of the NSDAP. Punished with death for vandalism of German institutions or disobeying a decree. These laws would become known as the Polish Criminal Law Ordinance.

From this Ordinance the Judges of the Third Reich sentenced thousands to death.

The country was split in two. For those not on the People’s list, they were treated brutally, and for those on the list, they could do little for those who were not. They had no rights, they could be evicted from their property, received meagre rations.

Dr. Globke also participated in drafting the Second Ordinance of the German People’s list.

The drafts that became laws the Dr. Globke worked on were pressed upon all the areas that the German armies marched. As the Wehrmacht advanced into the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa the circulars that he drafted that defined who qualified as a German national were implemented in the Ukraine and the Baltic countries.

His laws were present in Yugoslavia, Romania and Slovenia.

In Romania, Dr. Globke and Stuckart held meetings for a week with the Romanian government on how Romania could adopt the laws of Germany and implement its system within its borders. For this the King of Romania rewarded Dr. Globke with the Commander’s Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania, Hitler gave permission for Globke to receive the award.

In Slovenia the Germanisation was committed with great violence. The people of Slovenia whheld a certain level of intellect were feared by the Nazis deported and the rest were diminished economically before Germans from other areas were brought to resettle the now cleansed land.

Where ever Dr. Globke went he brought with him death. He may never have had to pull the trigger on a gun, nor to stand by as soldiers shot Jews into ditches at Babi Yar, Rumbula, Ponary, or Poles in Blonie, Zloczew, Torzeniec, or witness the murder of tens of thousands that died as a result of ethnic cleansing in Operation Tannenberg in Poland, or in the ethnic cleansing of Slovenia. He may not have been present as people lost their homes, or had their nationality stolen from them. But it was his drafts that became laws that facilitated much of the horrors that unfolded during the Third Reich and th Second World War, and he knew of the horrors and more over Dr. Hans Globke was fully aware of the mechanised extermination of the Jews.


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